Mark Bernstein


chief scientist
Eastgate Systems, Inc.
134 Main Street, Watertown MA 02472 USA


Ph.D. (Chemistry) 1983, Harvard University.

B.A. 1977, Swarthmore College.

Major Systems

    Tinderbox: Designer and product manager. A tool for making, analyzing, and sharing notes, Tinderbox enables scholars, students, analysts, and journalists throughout the world.

    Storyspace: Publisher and product manager. The tool of choice for hypertext fiction writers, Storyspace grew to be the characteristic tool for a generation of literary hypertext. Hypertext fictions based on Storyspace are studied in colleges and universities throughout the world and have inspired numerous books, monographs, and journal articles.

    Fontina: designer and product manager. A font manager and font menu for the Macintosh, Fontina received 4.5 mice from MacUser and was used in design studios, agencies and newspapers throughout the US and Europe.

    Hypergate: designer and product manager. A pioneering hypertext platform, Hypergate was demonstrated at the first Hypertext Conference and served as a platform for King Of Space, The Election of 1912, the Hypertext '87 Digest, and other pioneering hypertexts. Among other innovations, Hypergate introduced the concept of breadcrumb to hypertext design.


    Mark Bernstein, The Tinderbox Way, Eastgate Systems, Watertown. 2006. 2nd Edition 2009. 3rd Edition 2017.

    Mark Bernstein and Diane Greco, eds., Reading Hypertext, Eastgate, Watertown MA. 2009.

    Mark Bernstein, Those Trojan Girls: a hypertext fiction, Eastgate Systems, 2017.


  1. J. H. Hammons,.M. Bernstein, and R. J. Myers, “Electron-spin Resonance Study of the Radical Anions of Substituted Cyclooctatetraenes: Effects of Jahn-Teller Distoritions and Vibronic Mixing.” Journal of Chemical Physics 83(15): 1979 2034-2040.
  2. Bernstein, Mark. “The Computer Toolbox.” Byte 7.(3 ) (1982): 456-464.
  3. Bernstein, Mark, Lewis J. Rothberg, and K. S. Peters. “Picosecond Time-Resolved Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.” Picosecond Phenonema III. Ed. K. B. Eisenthal. Springer Series in Chemical Physics 23. Springer-Verlag, 1982.
  4. Bernstein, Mark, Lewis J. Rothberg, and K. S. Peters. “Time-resolved Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.” Chemical Physics Letters 91 (1982): 315.
  5. Lewis J. Rothberg, Mark Bernstein, and K. S. Peters. “Time-Resolved Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Applied to Properties of Picosecond Transients.” Journal of Chemical Physics 79 (1983): 2569.
  6. Mark Bernstein, John D. Simon et al. “Metal-Carbonyl Bond Strengths: Applications of Photo-Acoustic Calorimetry.” Chemical Physics Letters 100(3): 1983 241-244.
  7. Lewis J. Rothberg, Mark Bernstein, et al. “Pulsed Laser Photoacoustic Calorimetry of Metastable Species.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 105 (1983): 3464.
  8. Mark Bernstein. “Reducing The Man-Machine Barrier: The Sequence Analysis Workshop.” Computer Applications in the Biosciences (1986):
  9. Mark Bernstein. “Using Spreadsheet Languages to Understand Analysis Algorithms.” Computer Applications in the Biosciences (1986):
  10. Mark Bernstein, et al. Learning By Doing: Synthesis and Refinement of Control Strategy. American Control Conference. 3 vols. Minneapolis, MN: 1987. 2: 1363-7. (best in session)
  11. Mark Bernstein. Learning By Doing: Applications of Genetic Search to the Design of Control Strategies. IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control. Ed. A. Meystel and J.Y.S. Lundh. Philadelphia, PA: IEEE Computer Society, 1987. 501-505.
  12. Bernstein, Mark, and Linda Thorsen. Developing Dynamic Documents: Special Challenges for Techical Communicators. 34th International Technical Communications Conference. Denver: 1987.
  13. Mark Bernstein. The Hypertext '87 Digest. Cambridge, MA: Eastgate Systems, Inc., 1987.
  14. Mark Bernstein, and Erin Sweeney. The Election of 1912. Cambridge, MA: Eastgate Systems, Inc., 1988.
  15. Mark Bernstein. “The Bookmark and the Compass: Orientation Tools for Hypertext Users.” SIGOIS Journal 9.1988 (1988): 34-45.
  16. Mark Bernstein Dynamic Hypertext Documents: The Role of Reader Participation in Hypertext Writing. 35th International Technical Communications Conference. Philadelphia, PA: 1988. ATA-33 ff.
  17. Mark Bernstein, The Shape of Hypertext Documents. 36th International Technical Communications Conference, Washington, D.C.: Society for Technical Communicatrion, 1989. RT173-175.
  18. Mark Bernstein. Writing Effective Hypertext. 37th Technical Writers' Institute. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: 1989. 101-112.
  19. Mark Bernstein “An Apprentice that Discovers Hypertext Links.” Hypertext: Concepts, Systems and Applications, Proc. of ECHT'90. Ed. Rizk, Streitz and Andre. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990. 212-223.
  20. Mark Bernstein “Deeply Intertwingled Hypertext: The Navigation Problem Reconsidered.” Technical Communication 41-47.
  21. Mark Bernstein, Jay David Bolter, Michael Joyce, and Elli Mylonas. Architectures for Volatile Hypertext. Hypertext'91. San Antonio: 1991. 243-260.
  22. Mark Bernstein “The Navigation Problem Reconsidered.” Hypertext/Hypermedia Handbook. Ed. E. Berk and J. Devlin. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991. 285-297.
  23. Mark Bernstein “Storyspace: Hypertext and the Process of Writing.” Hypertext/Hypermedia Handbook. Ed. E. Berk and J. Devlin. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991. 529-533.
  24. Franca Garzotto, Paolo. Paolini and Mark Bernstein, Tools for Designing Hyperdocuments. Hypertext/ Hypermedia Handbook. E. Berk and J. Devlin. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1991. 179-208
  25. Mark Bernstein, and Elli Mylonas. A Literary Apprentice. Association for Computing In The Humanities. Oxford, U.K.: 1992.
  26. Mark Bernstein, Michael Joyce, and David B. Levine. Contours of Constructive Hypertext. European Conference on Hypernedia Technology. Milano: Asssociation for Computing Machinery, 1992.
  27. Mark Bernstein. Enactment in Information Farming. Hypertext '93. Seattle: 1993. 242-249.
  28. Mark Bernstein. On Writing Hypertext: Tools for Information Farming. Association for Computing in the Humanities. Paris: 1994.
  29. Mark Bernstein “Conversations With Friends: Hypertexts With Characters.” Hypermedia Design. Ed. S. Fraïse, et al. London: Springer, 1995. 207-15.
  30. Mark Bernstein “Chasing Our Tails/Chasing Our Tales.” CHORUS .October, 1997 (link)
  31. Mark Bernstein “Neighborhoods in Spatial Hypertext.” SIGLINK Bulletin 6(1):1997 15-18.
  32. Mark Bernstein. “A Deluge of Books on Hypertext.” SIGLink Newsletter 6(2):1997 15-16.
  33. Mark Bernstein "Patterns of Hypertext", Hypertext '98 Proceedings, Pittsburgh, PA, ACM: 21-29
  34. Mark Bernstein “Anticipations of Hypertext” STOP and the Literary Machine”, The Journal of Computer Documentation 23 (3) 1999 pp. 79-86
  35. Mark Bernstein “Two Open Problems in Hypertext Reading and Web Logs.” SIGWeb Newsletter 8(1): 1999. 24-25.
  36. Mark Bernstein, Structural Patterns in Hypertext Rhetoric. Computing Surveys, 1999. 31(4).
  37. Mark Bernstein "More Than Legible: On Links that Readers Don't Want to Follow". Hypertext 2000, San Antonio, Texas, ACM:2000. 216-7
  38. Mark Bernstein, "The Narrative Web: Beyond Usability and Design.", A List Apart, Jeffrey Zeldman, ed,
  39. Mark Bernstein, "Card Shark and Thespis: exotic tools for hypertext narrative", Hypertext 2001: Proceedings of the 12th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia, Århus, Denmark, ACM: 41-50 (Engelbart Award nominee)
  40. Mark Bernstein, “Tom and Bequi: The Web Journal That Brought Down the Wall”, invited essay for Independents Day,
  41. Mark Bernstein and Diane Greco, Card Shark and Thespis: exotic tools for hypertext narrative, in First Person, N. Wardrip-Fruin and P. Harrigan, Editors. 2004, MIT Press: Cambridge.
  42. occasional reviews for The Drood Review of Mystery, Jim Huang, ed. Including Lise McLendon, Blue Wolf; K. C. Greenlief, Cold Hunter’s Moon; Susan Cummings Miller, Death Assemblage; I. J. Parker, Rashomon Gate; Craig Smith, The Whisper of Leaves
  43. Mark Bernstein and Diane Greco, “Den litterære hypertekst og dens kritikere”, Standart 3, Rasmus Block, trans., Aarhus, 2001.
  44. Mark Bernstein, “Storyspace 1” Proceedings of the 13th Hypertext Conference; Hypertext 2002, Ken Anderson, Stuart Moulthrop and Jamie Blustein, eds., ACM, New York. pp. 172-181
  45. Mark Weal, Mark Bernstein, D. E. Millard, “Writing Constructivre Hypertext” ”. Proceedings of the 13th Hypertext Conference; Hypertext 2002, Ken Anderson, Stuart Moulthrop and Jamie Blustein, eds., ACM, New York
  46. Mark Bernstein, “Ten Tips for Writing The Living Web”, A List Apart, Jeffrey Zeldman, ed., August 2002.

    Anthologized in The New Writer's Handbook 2007, Erica Jong and Phillip Martin, eds., Scarletta Press, Minneapolis. 2007.

  47. Mark Bernstein, “The Year In Literary Hypertext”, newsletter of the Center for Digital Storytelling, January 2003.
  48. Mark Bernstein, “Blueprints: Putting Architecture into Information Architecture”, Tekka 1(1), February, 2003.
  49. Mark Bernstein, “Blueprints: Slums of Cyberspace, Tekka 1(2), June 2003.
  50. Mark Bernstein, "Bugs: a review of The Bug by Ellen Ullman and Lessons Learned in Software Testing by Cem Kaner et al.,", TEKKA 1(3),
  51. Mark Bernstein, "Conflicts and Interest", TEKKA 1(4),
  52. Mark Bernstein, "A Review of My Life With Master by Paul Czege", TEKKA 1(4)
  53. Mark Bernstein, "A Review of Pattern Recognition by William Gibson", TEKKA 2(1)
  54. Mark Bernstein, “Collage, Composites, Construction”, Proceedings of Hypertext ’03, (Nottingham, England, August 24-30, 2003), Les Carr and Lynda Hardman, eds., ACM, New York, in press.
  55. Mark Bernstein, “Lust, Touch, Metadata: Meaning and the Limits of Adaptation”, Proceedings of Hypertext ’04 (Santa Cruz, CA) David DeRoure and Helen L. Ashman, eds, ACM, New York. pp. 36-37.
  56. Mark Bernstein, “The Social Physics of Weblogs”. BlogTalks 2.0, Thomas N. Burg, ed., Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany. 2004.
  57. Mark Bernstein, "Intimate Information: organic hypertext structure and incremental formalization for everyone's everyday tasks", Proceedings WikiSym 2, (Odense, Denmark, 20-22 August 2006) Dirk Riehle, ed., ACM, New York. in press.
  58. Mark Bernstein. Shadows in the Cave: hypertext transformations, in IVICA 2006 Proceedings, College Station, Texas. 20-22 October 2006.
  59. Mark Bernstein, “On Hypertext Narrative”, Proceedings of Hypertext 2009 (Torino, Italy; June 28-July 1, 2009)
  60. Mark Bernstein, “Shadows in the Cave: hypertext transformations”, Journal of Digital Information 10 (3) 2009
  61. Mark Bernstein and Diane Greco, “Designing A New Media Economy”, Genre, Winter 2010.
  62. Mark Bernstein, “Criticism”, Hypertext 2010 Proceedings, ACM, New York, 2010.
  63. Mark Bernstein, “Fear”, Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy 7 (2), 2010. pp. 45-7
  64. Mark Bernstein, “NeoVictorian, Nobitic, and Narrative: ancient anticipations and the meaning of weblogs", Recent Trends and Developments in Social Software, Springer LNCS 6045, John G Breslin, Thomas N. Burg, et al. eds., Springer, 2010. pp. 169-176
  65. Bernstein, Mark; Mason, Stacey 2012. “Gothic.” Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Narrative and Hypertext NHT '12 29–34.
  66. Mark Bernstein, The Possiplex (review of Ted Nelson's autobiography), Swarthmore Alumni Bulletin, April 2011.
  67. Mark Bernstein, "Towards A Vocabulary of Spatial Hypertext", Proceedings of the 22nd ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (Eindhoven, The Netherlands) June 6-9, 2011.
  68. Mark Bernstein, "Flocks, Herds, and Stories temporal coherence and the long tail", Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Web Science, Koblenz, Germany. June 14-17, 2011.
  69. Mark Bernstein, review of Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson, Barnes and Noble Review, November 4, 2011.
  70. Claus Atzenbeck, Mark Bernstein, Stacey Mason, Marwa Ali Al-Shafey, “TouchStory: combining hyperfiction and multitouch”, Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 2013 (Paris), ACM, New York, 189-195
  71. Bernstein, M. 2016. “Storyspace 3” Proceedings of the 27th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media”. HT ‘16. 201-206.
  72. Bernstein, M. 2017. “Mark Bernstein Interviews HT’16 Creative Track Chair Stacey Mason”. SIGWEB Newsl. Winter, 4:1-4:5.
  73. ICIDS. October, 2017, Funchal, Madeira. “Some Moral Questions Concerning Story In Immersive Hypertext Narrative”.
  74. Future of Text. September 11-12, 2017. Southampton, UK.
  75. Mark Bernstein and Clare Hooper:  “A Villain’s Guide to Social Media and Web Science”, Hypertexts 2018 (2nd place, Blue Sky Papers)
  76. Mark Bernstein, “As We May Hear: Our Slaves Of Steel II”, Hypertext 2018

Publications In Translation

  1. Mark Bernstein, “Hypergate”, Navigare con gli Ipertesti, Paolo Paolini, trans., Mondadori, 1989. pp. 35-36.

  2. Mark Bernstein, Padrões do hipertexto. Interlab: labirintos do pensamento contemporäneo. L. Leão, ed. São Paulo, Illuminuras. (2002).

  3. Mark Bernstein, Jardins prazeirosos. Interlab: labirintos do pensamento contemporäneo, Lucia Leão, ed., São Paulo, Illuminuras. (2002).

  4. Mark Bernstein, Ten Tips for Writing the Living Web. Cibercultura, Lucia Leão, ed., São Paulo, Illuminuras.(2002).

  5. Mark Bernstein, Ten Tips for Writing the Living Web. (Czech) , Vilém Málek, trans., (2003).

  6. Mark Bernstein, "Ti tips å skrive for det Levende Nettet" (Norwegian), Nettpop Magisinett, Thomas Hammer, trans. February 2005

Selected Lectures

    Keynote speaker, Second International Congress on Web Studies, Université Paris 8, Archives Nationales, Tour Montparnasse

    Paris, France, October 3-5, 2018

  1. Hypertext 2017. Critical Theory for Fun: a review of narrativist games. July 4-7, 2017. Prague, Czech Republic.
  2. “Revisiting Classic Hypertexts”, First International Conference on Electronic Literature and Virtual Arts, Instituto Franklin, Alcalá de Henares, Spain, October 4-5, 2012.

  3. Keynote: "The New Digital”, Digital Humanities In India, Presidency University, Kolkata. September 24-25, 2012.

  4. “As We May Think”, plenary panel on the legacy of Vanevar Bush’s memex, Hypertext 2010, Toronto, Canada (with Frank Tompa, Catherine C. Marshall, and J. Nathan Matias)

  5. Keynote: "Thoughts on Narrative and the Web”, First International Congress on Web Studies, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Toluca, Mexico. March 4, 2010.

  6. Invited lecture, “NeoVictorian New Media: the critical difficulty”, The Future of Digital Studies, Digital Assembly, The University of Florida. February 27, 2010.

  7. Opening keynote: Workshop on Interactive Visualization of Collections and Activity, Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, June 19, 2009, Austin Texas.

  8. Invited Plenary: The New Knowledge Forge : a one-day colloquium on wikis, links, and social software. Porto, Portugal. June 30, 2008.

  9. Invited lecture, "NeoVictorian Computing: intimate information for everyone's everyday tasks", OOPSLA 2007, 25 October 2007, Montréal, Canada.

  10. Café Scientifique, Cafe Muse, Manchester Museum, 12 September 2007 18:30. Unlinked and Entangled: how codex technology and contemporary critical theory contributed to the breakdown of the Anglo-American Occupation of Iraq.

  11. Tinderbox Weekend, St. John's College, Cambridge, England. April, 2007

  12. "False Intentions and the Fallacy of Finding", opening keynote, OZ-IA, Sydney, Australia. October 2006.

  13. "Intimate Information: organic hypertext structure and incremental formalization for everyone's everyday tasks", invited lecture, WikiSym 2 (Odense, Denmark)

  14. "What is a good weblog?", keynote lecture, BlogHui, Wellington, New Zealand. March 2006.

  15. "Saving The Blogosphere", invited lecture, Blogtalk Downunder, Sydney Australia, May 2005

  16. Tinderbox Weekend Paris: April 16-17, 2005. AUP, Paris, France

  17. National Art Education Association, "When Research Sparks a Tinderbox", Boston, MA USA, March 5, 2005

  18. Tinderbox Weekend Boston: February 12-13, 2005. Boston, MA, USA

  19. BlogWalk, January 22, 2005. Chicago Illinois USA.

  20. Tinderbox Weekend West: October 2-3, 2004. San Francisco, California, USA.

  21. IBM Research, Cambridge MA. "How we might use what we know to help users know what they know. Fall 2004.

  22. Hypertext '04: Santa Cruz, California, USA, August 9-13, 2004. I'll be a guest at the Blogging Tutorial. (I'm also panel chair)

  23. BlogTalk 2: July 5-6, 2004. Vienna, Austria. keynote: Deeply Intertwingled: The Social Physics of the New Weblog

  24. Tinderbox Weekend: May 22-23, 2004. Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

  25. April 22, 2004. Humanities Informatics Distinguished Lecturer Series, Texas A&M, College Station, Texas, USA.

  26. EdBlogger, San Francisco, November 22-23, 2003

  27. Semantic Distance Workshop, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD. Nov 10-12, 2003.

  28. Hypertext '03. University of Nottingham.August 26-30, 2003.

  29. American University of Paris.September 29, 2003.

  30. Readercon. Why We Like Buffy. Waltham, MA. September 13, 2003:

  31. Digital Storytelling Festival,  Sedona, Arizona. 12-15 June 2003

  32. H2PTM: Creating Meaning In The Digital Era, Paris, France.September 24-26, 2003.

  33. "Hypertext Gardens, Architecture, and IA", Information Architecture Summit, 22-23 March 2003, Portland, Oregon, USA.

  34. Personal Publishing Pandemonium, and What is a book? Jan van Eyck Academie, Maastricht, Netherlands. May 2003

  35. Dust Or Magic, Wadham College, Oxford, March 27-29, 2003

  36. AWP/CLMP Web Fair, Baltimore, MD. February 27, 2003

  37. eNarrative 5, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Held in cooperation with the Boston Public Library, in conjunction with the 2003 Boston Cyberarts Festival. May 10-11, 2003.

  38. Brandeis University, Waltham, MA. April 29, 2002.

  39. NEMO Music Conference: New Media Showcase. Suisshotel, Boston. April 12, 2002:

  40. Hypertext 2002, College Park, Maryland, USA. ( Storyspace 1) June 11-15, 2002
  41. Future of Publishing Symposium, Los Angeles. Sponsored by ELO. April 4-6, 2002:.
  42. Hypertext/Education/Storyspace: the 4th eNarrative roundtable. Boston, March 16-17, 2002:

  43. eNarrative 3, San Francisco. January 19-20, 2002.
  44. Senior Fellow, National University, Singapore. December 12-January 17, 2002.

  45. University of Southampton. "Card Shark and Thespis: two exotic tools for hypertext narrative". November 6, 2001.

  46. p0es1s, Erfurt and Berlin, Germany. September 26-9, 2001. " Cause, Consequence, Sleepless Nights -- exotic tools for hypertext narrative." The reason we woudn't want to meet Hamlet on the Holodeck, and the mysterious absence of tragedy and comedy from hypertext literature"
  47. Hypertext 2001, Aarhus, Dennmark. August 14-18, 2001

  48. ReaderCon, Waltham MA. July 15, 2001

  49. "Where the Hypertexts Are", National University Singapore, 2000.

  50. "Where are the Hypertexts?", opening keynote, ACM Hypertext 1999, Darmstadt, Germany.

  51. "Beyond Bibliolatry:, Canadian Library Association, Toronto. 1999.

  52. "Chasing Our Tales", plenary talk at the colloquium Tous les savoirs du monde celebrating the inauguration of the new Biblioteque de France. 12-15 June 2003:


Nominated for Engelbart Award, Hypertext 2001 (Århus).

Merck Fellow, 1982-1983.

National Science Foundation Fellow, 1977-1981.

Phi Beta Kappa, 1977.

1-O, Chicago Draft Board, 1973.

National Merit Award Semifinalist, 1973.

Service and Teaching

  1. ACM Web Science conference, Program Chair, 2013 (Paris)

  2. ACM WikiSym: Keynote speaker, 2006; Panels Chair, 2007; Program Chair, 2008. Program Committee 2009.

  3. ACM Hypertext Conference: Member of the program committee: 1989, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,2007, 2008, 2009. Program co-chair: 1996 (Washington) and 1997 (Southampton). Keynote speaker, 1999 (Darmstadt). Track program chair 2007. Track program chair 2008, 2009.

  4. National University Singapore: Senior Fellow, December 2001-Janiary 2002.

  5. University of Baltimore: Taught "The Business of New Media", Fall semester, 1999.

  6. eNarrative roundtables: Organized and moderated a continuing series of eNarrative roundtables in Boston and San Francisco, addressing topics in new media and narrative.

  7. AAAI: Co-chair (with Steve Feiner and K. Eric Drexler) of AAAI-88 workshop on AI and hypertext, Minneapolis, MN.